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Environmental Factors and Autoimmune Thyroid Disease

by W. Reid Litchfield, MD, FACE

Autoimmune thyroid disease has generally been considered to be a familial syndrome, but environmental factors can be a significant contributor to the development of these disorders.

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What is a Normal TSH Level?

by W. Reid Litchfield, MD, FACE

TSH is critical in diagnosing thyroid disorders, as well as in the evaluation of the adequacy of therapy in patients with thyroid disease. Controversy exists with respect to what represents normal versus abnormal TSH.

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